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There are a handful of transitive verbs in Tokana, called causatives, which require an ergative subject (or an instrumental subject, in the case of inanimates; section 2.1.1) and an embedded clause complement containing a verb in the resultative order (section 3.3.2). Such verbs denote a complex event whereby one participant acts upon another to bring about a particular action or situation. For example:
Na Sakial lohke siespeuna Mafe te kihun the:Erg Sakial make-Pst write-Res-the:NA Mafe the:Abs letter "Sakial made Mafe write the letter" or "Sakial got Mafe to write the letter"
This is literally "Sakial made that Mafe writes the letter". Here the resultative clause siespeuna Mafe te kihun "that Han (would) write the letter" denotes the event resulting from Sakial's actions. Verbs of the causative class include:
lohka "make, cause" panlohka "force, compel" suka "do, make, use" nana "let" mela "help" telania "keep, hold" tema "have, bring about"
I give examples of each of these verbs below. In the accompanying descriptions, the term causer refers to the subject of the causative verb, while causee refers to the subject of the resultative verb (e.g., in the sentence above, Sakial is the causer and Mafe is the causee).
(1) Lohka is a semantically neutral causative verb, equivalent to make or cause in English, while panlohka indicates a certain amount of coercion, and is thus closer to force. Panlohka is used when the causer is exerting pressure on the causee, and/or the causee is acting against his/her will. Both verbs require that the causee be animate. With panlohka the causer must also be animate, although lohka may take an inanimate subject (marked with instrumental case):
Na mikal lohke hesuleuna kimi the:Erg boy make-Pst cry-Res-the:NA baby "The boy made the baby cry" Itan lhonkone lohke hesuleuna kimi the:Inst loud:noise-Inst make-Pst cry-Res-the:NA baby "The loud noise made the baby cry" Kima panlohke klohteuneuna Han te katia ie eupat we:Erg force-Pst put:in:order-Res-the:NA Han the:Abs house with be:alone-Dep "We forced Han to straighten up the house by himself"
The verb lohka can also take a clausal subject denoting an event. Here again the subject is in the instrumental case. Compare the following example with the sentences above:
Itan lakanna ikei lohke hesuleuna kimi the:Inst bark-Dep-the:NA dog make-Pst cry-Res-the:NA baby "The barking of the dog made the baby cry"
(2) The verb suka normally means "to do", "to make", or "to work". When used as a causative verb, it indicates an event whereby the causer physically manipulates the causee so as to bring about the action or state denoted by the embedded verb. The causee is generally inanimate, often a tool:
Ami suke tasiheu uslaute te halma I:Erg make-Pst stand-Res edge-Dat the:Abs book "I made the book stand on end" Ami suke limeui iosokne te hitol I:Erg make-Pst open-Res-the:NA key-Inst the:Abs door "I used the key to open the door" or "I got the key to open the door"
The second sentence above describes a situation whereby my manipulating the key caused it to open the door.
(3) Nana corresponds closely to English let or leave, while mela corresponds to help and telania corresponds to keep:
Kima nane muelheusa we:Erg let-Pst sleep-Res-they:NA "We let them sleep" Ami nane limeue huiloi I:Erg leave-Pst open-Res-the:Abs window "I left the window open" Kima mele sikespeuna Sakial te yli we:Erg help-Pst harvest-Res-the:NA Sakial the:Abs grain "We helped Sakial harvest the grain" Kima telanie sukeuna Sakial immiote lohe we:Erg keep-Pst work-Res-the:NA Sakial whole:time day-Dat "We kept Sakial working all day" Itan iasapine ohui telania hulieu the:Inst eating-Inst fruit keep healthy-Res "Eating fruiting keeps one healthy"
(4) Tema has a 'weak' causative meaning. It denotes an event whereby the causer acts (usually indirectly, perhaps also unintentionally) to bring about an action or state. This verb corresponds quite closely to causative have in English:
Ami teme uhkuoleun Han elh ne Elim I:Erg have-Pst Refl-meet-Res-the:Abs Han and the:Abs Elim "I had Han and Elim meet"
Note the use of tema with the modal suffix -uh- in the following examples:
Imai temuha klohteuneuko te katia I:Dat have-want put:in:order-Res-you:NA the:Abs house "I want you to straighten up the house" lit. "I want to have (that) you straighten up the house" Mà'n itule temuhanko nieuma? what-Qu Foc-would have-want-Dep-you:NA do-Res-I:NA "What would you have me do?"
Ditransitive (or three argument) verbs are verbs which take a subject, object, and indirect object. Ditransitives in Tokana generally take an ergative subject, an absolutive (or clausal) direct object, and an oblique indirect object (usually a dative or ablative phrase). Verbs of this class include uthma "give", lasta "send", teuna "put, place, take", itsa "say, tell":
Na Han uthme talak inai ahtè the:Erg Han give-Pst coins the:Dat father-Dat "Han gave money to (his) father" Na Han laste kihun inai ahtè the:Erg Han send-Pst letter the:Dat father-Dat "Han sent a letter to (his) father" Na Mafe teunete talak itai hime akot the:Erg Mafe put/take-Pst-the:Pl:Abs coins the:Dat inside-Dat box "Mafe put the money in the box" Na Mafe teunete talak itaul himu akot the:Erg Mafe put/take-Pst-the:Abs coins the:Abl inside-Abl box "Mafe took the money out of the box" lit. "Mafe took the money from inside the box" Na Elim itsema siespinna Sakial te kihun the:Erg Elim say-Pst-me:NA write-Dep:Pst-the:NA Sakial the:Abs letter "Elim told me that Sakial wrote the letter" or "Elim said to me that Sakial wrote the letter"
Tokana is a language in which arguments of verbs may be freely dropped, if their referents are unknown, arbitrary, recoverable from context, or irrelevant to the situation in which the sentence is uttered. For instance, the following pairs of sentences show that objects can be dropped if their denotation is very general, or can be inferred from context:
Na Mothe iasiha homa the:Erg Mothe eat-Prog bread "Mothe is eating bread" Na Mothe iasiha the:Erg Mothe eat-Prog "Mothe is eating" Na ikei kilhtem the:Erg dog bite-Pst-me:Abs "That dog bit me" Na ikei kilhta the:Erg dog bite "That dog bites (people)"
Alternations of the following sort - where a given verb may or may not take an overt ergative- or instrumental-marked agent - are particularly common:
Na mikal tsitspè kopo the:Erg boy smash-Pst-the:Abs pot "The boy smashed the pot" Te kopo tsitspe the:Abs pot smash-Pst "The pot (was) smashed" Na mikal limè hitol the:Erg boy open-Pst-the:Abs door "The boy opened the door" Te hitol lime the:Abs door open-Pst "The door (was) opened" Itan kahpisuhne muohfi piakunupunte talpe the:Inst rainfall-Inst heavy:one flood-Cpl-the:Pl:Abs field "The heavy rainfall flooded the fields" Ten talpe piakunupun the:Pl:Abs field flood-Cpl "The fields (were) flooded" Na kal suehkiospè katia the:Erg man burn:down-Pst-the:Abs house "The man burned the house down" Te katia suehkiospe the:Abs house burn:down-Pst "The house (was) burned down"
Sentences such as Te katia suehkiospe are ambiguous between a 'passive'-type reading ("The house was burned down"), where the action has an implied agent, and an 'inchoative'-type reading ("The house burned down"), where there is no implied agent and the action is viewed as having happened spontaneously.
Notice that the form of the verb does not change when the agent argument is dropped: Tokana does not have a passive construction like English, where the patient is 'promoted' to subject position and the agent is 'demoted' to the status of an optional by-phrase (e.g. The house was burned down by the man). The discourse effect of passivisation - namely, to foreground a non-subject argument - can be achieved in Tokana simply by moving the object or some other argument to a position in front of the verb called the topic position (section 5.1.4). This is shown in the following example. Notice that the case form of the determiner makes it clear which noun phrase is the subject and which is the object:
Te katia suehkiospena kal the:Abs house burn:down-Pst-the:Erg man "The house, the man burned (it) down" or "The house was burned down by the man"
The closest thing to a passive morpheme in Tokana is the prefix iok- (section 3.6.2), which may be attached to a verb stem to indicate an indeterminate or arbitrary agent:
Ioklime hitol Arb-open-Pst door "Someone opened a door" Te hitol ioklime the:Abs door Arb-open-Pst "The door was opened" or "The door, someone opened (it)"
The iok- form of the verb is not exactly analogous to the English passive, however: First of all, when iok- is attached to the verb, it is not possible to express the agent by means of a by phrase. Secondly, only agentive verbs - that is, verbs which take ergative subjects and express a conscious, volitional action - may take the iok- prefix. And finally, iok- may be attached to intransitive as well as transitive verbs, as shown below. Intransitive verbs cannot by passivised in English.
Iokmuelhiha itai katiai Arb-sleep-Prog the:Dat house-Dat "Someone is sleeping in the house" Ihutka anteumi iohkostane last:night a:great:deal Arb-dance-Pst "There was much dancing last night"
In this section I discuss affixes which serve to change the lexical class (part of speech) of the word or stem to which they attach. In 3.9.1 and 3.9.2 I consider different ways of deriving nouns from verbs. And in 3.9.3 I discuss the formation of stative verbs from nouns.
There are various suffixes which may be attached to verbs to form nouns. These suffixes are completely productive (i.e. they may attach to any verb), and the resulting forms are extensively used. Below I discuss gerunds, while in 3.9.2 I discuss participles.
Gerunds (that is, noun phrases which denote generic actions or states) are derived by attaching the suffix -pi to the unmarked form of the verb:
uhna "sing" uhnapi "singing" fiha "be young" fihapi "being young, youth"
Negative gerunds, formed by suffixing -otipi to the verb stem, are also occasionally attested:
kesta "be happy" kestapi "being happy, happiness" kestotipi "not being happy, unhappiness"
Gerunds formed with -pi/-otipi normally take an overt singular determiner (just like generic noun phrases; cf. 2.2.2). The examples below show how gerunds are used in sentences:
Te sihanapi henkakma the:Abs swimming enjoy-we:NA "We enjoy swimming" Te tsaka hostanapi teusu koluma the:Abs kind dancing very difficult "That kind of dancing is very difficult"
Gerunds derived using this suffix may take direct objects, usually non-referential noun phrases. This is shown in the example below, where tieliapi "taking care of" takes ohte "soil/land" as its object. (Gerunds may not take subjects, however.)
Itai okai Tokana, te tieliapi ohte teusu aulina the:Dat people-Dat Tokana the:Abs taking:care soil very important "To the Tokana, taking care of the land (i.e. farming) is very important"
Gerunds are prohibited from taking clitic determiners (section 2.1.2). Thus when a gerund takes a referential object, the independent form of the determiner must be used (section 2.1.1):
Te tieliapi te ohte lhai ialai kameima the:Abs taking:care the:Abs land here have-the:NA clan-Dat-my:NA "Taking care of this land is the responsibility of (lit. belongs to) my clan"
(Notice that in the expression te tieliapi te ohte lhai "taking care of this land" does not include an element equivalent to of in English.)
Note that gerunds (e.g. te tieliapi ohte "farming, taking care of land") do not refer to particular events or situations occurring at particular times, but rather types of events or situations. Noun phrases denoting specific events/situations, rather than generic ones, have a very different structure: These consist of a singular inanimate determiner followed by an embedded clause (with dependent order marking on the verb; 3.1.1):
te muntanne Sakial the:Abs drunk-Dep-the:Abs Sakial "Sakial's being drunk" or "the (fact) that Sakial is drunk" te puniunana Sakial itai Kemothasie the:Abs travel-Dep:Cpl-the:NA Sakial the:Dat Kemothasi-Dat "Sakial's having travelled to Kemothasi"
These are literally "the that Sakial is drunk" and "the that Sakial has travelled to Kemothasi", respectively. Such constructions have the distribution of regular noun phrases (i.e. they may be subjects, objects, topics, etc.). For example:
Te muntanne Sakial oukutama the:Abs drunk-Dep-the:Abs Sakial trouble-me:NA "Sakial's being drunk troubles me"
There are three sets of suffixes - the non-absolutive, the absolutive completive, and the absolutive incompletive - which may be attached to verb stems to form participles (or nominalisations). I list these suffixes below, together with examples formed from the verb iasa "eat":
Positive Non-absolutive -aka iasaka "eater, one who eats" Absolutive compl. -oi iasoi "thing which has been eaten" Absolutive incompl. -i iasi "thing which is/would be eaten" Negative Non-absolutive -otika iasotika "one who does not eat" Absolutive compl. -otoi iasotoi "thing which has not been eaten" Absolutive incompl. -otè iasotè "thing which would not be eaten"
A participle in Tokana is a noun which refers to one of the participants of the action denoted by the verb from which it is derived (see below). Like all nouns, participles require determiners when used to refer to specific individuals. For example:
ne iasaka "the eater, the one who eats" te iasoi "that which has been eaten" or "the thing which has been eaten"
Participles inflect for case like regular nouns. Example paradigms are given below (cf. section 2.2.4; notice that -otè becomes -otei- when it occurs non-finally):
|absolutive / ergative||iasaka||iasotika|
|absolutive / ergative||iasoi||iasotoi|
|absolutive / ergative||iasi||iasotè|
For verb stems ending in an i glide, the absolutive incompletive -i becomes -è (or -ei- non-finally). For example, from the verb mitia "light, weak" (with the stem miti-), we can form the absolutive incompletive participle mitiè "light one, weak one", with the following paradigm:
|absolutive / ergative||mitiè||mitiotè|
The meanings of the different participles are discussed below:
(1) Non-absolutive participles denote the agent/experiencer of an action. They may be formed from any verb, transitive or intransitive, which takes an ergative, instrumental, or dative subject:
uhna "sing" uhnaka "singer, one who sings" kesta "be happy" kestaka "one who is happy" uima "love" uimaka "lover, one who loves" kaiha "kill" kaihaka "killer, one who kills" kypesa "search for" kypesaka "searcher, one who searches"
(2) Absolutive participles denote the patient/theme (i.e. the absolutive argument) of an action or state. The absolutive completive is used with eventive verbs, transitive or intransitive, to indicate the patient or theme of a completed action:
lima "open" limoi "that which is open / has been opened" kaiha "kill" kaihoi "one who has been killed" lhalhta "roast" lhalhtoi "that which has been roasted" itskana "arrive" itskanoi "one who has arrived" tioka "die" tiokoi "one who has died"
The absolutive incompletive is used with eventive verbs to indicate the patient/theme of a potential or hypothetical action, and is also used with stative verbs:
pata "be tall" pati "one who is tall, tall one" klota "be fast" kloti "one who is fast, fast one" tolha "stand" tolhi "one who stands / who would stand" sepa "drink" sepi "that which can be drunk"
Lhimoti iakme sepi be here-Neg any drink-Incpl:Part "There is nothing to drink here" lit. "Here (there) isn't any thing-which-can-be-drunk"
Participles may be used as referring expressions by themselves (e.g. ne uastaka "the one that flies, the flying one", te tsitspoi "the thing which has been broken, the broken one"). More often, however, they modify another noun as part of a compound:
ne peilan uastaka "the flying bird, the bird which flies" te kopo tsitspoi "the broken pot, the pot which has been broken" ne eithe tiokoi "the dead horse, the horse which has died" maka lhalhtoi "roasted meat, meat which has been roasted"
When the participle is formed from a stative verb (e.g. elifa "be beautiful", muelhoksa "be tired"), the result is functionally equivalent to a modifying adjective in English:
katia elifi "a beautiful house, a house which is beautiful" ne pyi muelhoksi "the tired child, the child who is tired"
Normally the participle follows the noun it modifies (as in noun compounds generally; see section 2.3). However, if the modified noun is being focused, then the participle may precede it. Compare the following noun phrases:
te katia elifi "the beautiful house" te elifi katia "the beautiful house" (as opposed to some other beautiful object)
Here, the first noun phrase refers to some house which happens to be beautiful, while the second noun phrase refers to a beautiful object, taken from a set of beautiful objects under discussion, which is distinguished from the others by being a house.
As in all noun compounds, it is the first noun of the compound (the head noun) which receives case marking in oblique noun phrases, while the other nouns remain in their unmarked form. This is shown below (note that lisa "beautiful, handsome" is used with animates, while elifa "beautiful", in the examples above, is used with inanimates):
Ani uthmè halma inai kale lisi he:Erg give-Pst-the:Abs book the:Dat man-Dat handsome:one "He gave the book to the handsome man" Ani uthmè halma inai lisie kal he:Erg give-Pst-the:Abs book the:Dat handsome:one-Dat man "He gave the book to the handsome man" (e.g. as opposed to the handsome boy)
In the first sentence, it is the underived noun kal "man" which carries the suffix -e (in 'agreement' with the dative case determiner inai; cf. section 2.2.4), while the participle lisi remains unmarked. In the second sentence, it is the fronted participle that receives dative case marking, while kal remains unmarked.
As the following examples illustrate, participles may be formed not only from bare verb stems, but also from verb stems which carry modal/aspectual suffixes, the reflexive prefix, or relative marking (sections 3.6.1-3.6.3):
muelha "sleep" muelhoina "begin to sleep" ne muelhoinaka "the one who is beginning to sleep" paua "bathe, wash" ukpaua "bathe oneself" se ukpaui "the ones who bathe themselves" liuna "be old" anliunehta "be older/oldest" ne anliunehti "the older/oldest one" Ne Sakial ne kal anliunehti itai pule the:Abs Sakial the:Abs man oldest:one the:Dat village-Dat "Sakial (is) the oldest man in the village"
Note finally that a handful of stative verbs have irregular absolutive participles. For instance, the participial form of kila "be small" is not kili, but kiho "small one". The following list gives the most common irregular forms:
Verb Participle fiha fihu "young one" iena ian "good one" kila kiho "small one" kuema kuehmi "bad one" liuna luhme "old one" toma tohmi "big one"
te katia tohmi "the big house" ne iha luhme "the old woman" ne pyi fihu "the young child"
These irregular forms are not used when the verb stem is in the relative form, or has a modal or aspectual suffix attached to it. Instead, the regular form (e.g. kili) is used:
te kiho "the small one" te kiloini "the one which is becoming small" te ankilehti "the smaller/smallest one"
As I mentioned in section 3.7.3, predicate nominal constructions in Tokana may be formed with the copula he "be":
Ne Han he ne suhpama the:Abs Han is the:Abs brother-my:NA "Han is my brother" Ne suhpama he ne Han the:Abs brother-my:NA is the:Abs Han "My brother is Han"
In these examples, the copula he 'links' two specific noun phrases, ne Han and ne suhpama, and indicates that they have the same referent (i.e. "Han" and "my brother" are the same person).
However, if one wishes to express the idea than an individual has the property of belonging to a certain class of objects, a different strategy is normally used for forming nominal predicates. This strategy involves attaching the verbal suffix -a to the noun stem, thereby creating a derived stative verb. For instance, from the noun stem mikoin "child" we can form the verb mikoina "be a child", as in the following sentence (observe that mikoina, like most stative verbs, takes an absolutive case subject):
Ne napehna Mothe eima mikoina the:Abs daughter-the:NA Mothe still child-Pred "Mothe's daughter is still a child"
When -a is attached to a noun stem, the stem may undergo certain phonological changes. There are six patterns to consider:
(1) If the noun stem ends in a consonant or a glide, then -a is added without any changes:
koin koina "be a person" aihnot aihnota "be gold, be made of gold" pyi pyia "be a child"
(2) If the stem ends in a stressed vowel, then the underlying final h surfaces before -a:
là laha "be a plant" napè napeha "be (someone's) daughter"
(3) If the noun stem ends in a, then an h is inserted before -a:
halma halmaha "be a book" malka malkaha "be a wolf"
(4) Stem-final i and e become an i glide before -a:
pami pamia "be food" tene tenia "be a steep hill"
(5) Stem-final o and u become a u glide before -a:
kilu kilua "be (someone's) grandson" talo talua "be king, be the king"
(6) For nouns which end in a non-low vowel preceded by a glide, an i glide is inserted before -a:
inie inieia "be eyes"
Derived nominal predicates take the full array of tense/aspect, negation, and order morphology, and can also host clitic determiners. In other words, they behave exactly like underived stative verbs. This is illustrated by the paradigm for pyia, given below:
|dependent indic.||non-past||pyiat, pyian-||pyiotia|
Nai pyioti iakeima she:Abs child-Pred-Neg any:longer "She is not a child any longer" Imai iona pyiotian iakeima I:Dat know child-Pred-Neg-Dep-she:Abs any:longer "I know that she is not a child any longer"
Also, compare the following pair of examples, where the second sentence contains a nominal predicate in the resultative order serving as the complement of the causative verb lohka "make, cause" (cf. section 3.8.5):
Ne Sakial talua the:Abs Sakial king-Pred "Sakial is (the) king" Kima lohke talueun Sakial we:Erg make-Pst king-Pred-Res-the:Abs Sakial "We made Sakial (be) king"
Some nominal predicates - e.g. those denoting personal and familial relationships - may take (dative case) arguments:
Ne iha lhon ammiana Elime the:Abs woman there mother-Pred-the:NA Elim-Dat "That woman is mother to Elim" or "That woman is Elim's mother" Sai kunahunma kete antè ume they:Abs friend-Pred-Cpl-me:NA for many-Dat year "They were friends of mine for many years" Imai ne lhon isokala I:Dat he:Abs there Foc-husband-Pred "That person is my husband" lit. "To me, that one is a husband"
(Notice that in the last example above, the focus marker i- has been prefixed to sokala "be a husband", due to the fact that ne lhon is being focused; see 3.6.4 and 5.1.2.)
Nominal predicates sometimes occur as adverbial modifiers to other verbs (section 4.1.3), as in the following idiom. Here, ie pokotat "(with) being a turtle" is an adverbial expression which describes, in metaphorical terms, the manner of sleeping:
Ani muelha ie pokotat he:Erg sleep with turtle-Pred-Dep "He sleeps like/as a turtle" (i.e. He sleeps soundly)
As their name suggests, degree words indicate the degree to which a particular property holds, the frequency or intensity with which a particular activity is carried out, or the extent to which a particular situation has been achieved. A list of degree words is given below (notice that several of these words are derived from quantifiers by adding the suffix -umi; cf. section 2.5.2):
anehteumi "more, more so" anteumi "much, very, very much so, a lot, a great deal" lhomioteumi "all, all the way, thoroughly, completely" lhoteumi "partly, partially; part way" miomi "how much; to some degree" mioteumi "all, all the way, thoroughly, completely" mulh "enough, sufficiently" nemmioteumi "almost completely, very nearly" omi "so, so much, this/that much; how" sepeumi "somewhat, more or less" teteumi "rather, quite" teusu "very, much, a lot" tsamaumi "mostly, for the most part, largely" tsema "a little, a little bit, slightly" tsuò "too" tsuohanteumi "too much, too much so" tsyi "not enough" tsyianteumi "not enough" tuiaketsuò "not too, not too much" uteumi "almost, nearly, just about"
Degree words occur in a fixed position, immediately preceding the verb. Many degree words may be used with either stative or eventive verbs:
anteumi kesta "be very happy" anteumi hostana "dance a lot" tsema ohyina "be a little sad" tsema hostana "dance a little"
Others are used primarily with one or the other. For instance, the major difference between tsuò and tsuohanteumi (or between tsyi and tsyianteumi) is that the former is used with stative verbs while the latter is used with eventive verbs:
Nai tsuò ampata he:Abs too Rel-tall "He is too tall" Nai tsuohanteumi utiana he:Abs too:much come:close "He is coming too close"
Recall from section 3.6.3 that mulh, tsuò (and tuiaketsuò), and tsyi require the following verb to occur in the relative form (prefixed with an-):
Nai mulh anliuna "He is old enough" Nai tsuò anliuna "He is too old" Nai tuiaketsuò anliunoti "He is not too old" Nai tsyi anliuna "He is not old enough"
Recall also from section 3.6.4 that when a focussed element or interrogative word occurs in the preverbal focus position (5.1.2) or the operator position (5.1.3), and a degree word is also present, the focus marker i- attaches to the degree word rather than the verb. Compare the following:
Ne lihpana tsuò amfiha the:Abs sister-his:NA too Rel-young "His sister is too young" Ne lihpana itsuò amfiha the:Abs sister-his:NA Foc-too Rel-young "It's his sister who is too young"
In the second sentence, ne lihpana "his sister" is being focused. Here, i- is prefixed to the degree word tsuò "too much" rather than to the verb amfiha "be young".
Additional examples of degree words are given below:
Nai omi lisa! he:Abs so/how handsome "He's so handsome!" or "How handsome he is!" Te kopo mioteumi tsatsun the:Abs pot completely full-Cpl "The pot was completely full" Mai nula liunat, temai anehteumi henkà hostanapi I:Abs grow old-Dep then more:so enjoy-the:Abs dancing "The older I get, the more I enjoy dancing" lit. "I grow older, then (I) enjoy dancing more so" Suehten ie nanat lhoteumi iaseue homa go:away-Pst-he:Abs with leave-Dep partially eat-Res-the:Abs bread "He went away, leaving the bread partially eaten"
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